First, the articles summary:
To test the familiarity of the applicants with the types of risk factors and mechanical intrinsic security requirements of major tools and areas during the produce and utilization of machinery.
Second, the important points, tough factors:
(1) Understand the primary types of mechanical items;
(2) Understand the inbuilt safety requirements of mechanical style and the kind of safety device of the machine;
(3) Familiar with the boiler area, air compressor station, gas place, air station, acetylene place dangerous stage and general safety technology management requirements.
Third, the content material points out:
Equipment is a gadget that is assembled by a quantity of interconnected elements and may perform certain functions. During the procedure of the mechanical apparatus, at least some of the relative movements are made relating to specific guidelines. The complete mechanical device includes a excellent mover, a control and control system, a transmission system, a support gadget and an actuator.
Machinery is an essential gear in contemporary creation and lifestyle. While getting high performance, acceleration and comfort to people, the machine also brings mechanical harm such as impact, extrusion, slicing and additional nonmechanical dangers such as electrical surprise, noise and high temperatures during its manufacture, operation and make use of.
The task of mechanical safety is to take system measures to ensure the safety and health of employees in the entire process of production and usage of machinery, from various hazardous factors. Mechanical basic safety includes two factors of the basic safety of mechanical item making and the safety of mechanical gear.
1.1, mechanical product manufacturing safety
(1) Main categories of mechanical products
There are many types of mechanical products. The main items of the machinery sector are as comes after:
(1) Agricultural equipment: tractors, internal combustion engines, planters, harvesting machinery, etc.
(2) Large mining machinery: metallurgical machinery, mining machinery, lifting machinery, loading and unloading equipment, commercial and mining vehicles, cement apparatus, etc.
(3) Construction machinery: forklifts, earthmoving machinery, compaction equipment, cement equipment, etc.
(4) Petrochemical general machinery: oil drilling and mining machinery, oil refining machinery, chemical machinery, pumps, fans, valves, gas compressors, refrigeration and air flow conditioning machinery, paper machinery, printing machinery, plastic processing machinery, pharmaceutical machinery.
(5) Electrical machinery: power generation machinery, transformers, electrical motors, high and low voltage switches, wire and cable, batteries, electrical welding devices, household appliances, etc.
(6) Machine tools: metal cutting machine equipment, forging devices, foundry equipment, woodworking machinery, etc.
(7) Autos: trucks, street buses, vehicles, modified cars, motorcycles, etc.
(8) Instrumentation: automated tools, electric tools, optical devices, component analyzers, motor vehicle instrumentation, electrical gear, audio-visual apparatus, cameras, etc.
(9) Basic machinery: bearings, hydraulic parts, seals, powder metallurgy products, regular fasteners, commercial chains, gears, molds, etc.
(10) Packaging machinery: packaging machinery, metallic packaging products, metal containers, etc.
(11) Environmental protection machinery: water pollution prevention equipment, atmosphere pollution prevention equipment, solid waste treatment equipment, etc.
(12) Various other machinery.
The primary products of the non-mechanical industry include railway machinery, construction machinery, textile equipment, light industrial machinery, and maritime machinery.
(2) Mechanical safety style and machine safety device
Mechanical safety includes safety at all stages of design, manufacturing, installation, adjustment, use, maintenance, and disassembly. Protection style minimizes risk. Mechanical basic safety style refers to the proper form and relatives placement from the part materials to the part in the mechanical style stage, from limiting the working drive, the quality and swiftness of the shifting parts to reducing noise and vibration, using intrinsic security technology and power resource, applying zero The basic principle of forced mechanical action between components, mixed with ergonomic desk concepts and other steps, avoids or reduces the risk by selecting suitable design buildings; it can also enhance the reliability, operation mechanization or automation of the devices and Steps such as adjustments and maintenance outside the risk zone to worm reducers prevent or reduce the danger.
Intrinsically safe
Intrinsic safety is normally a mechanical safety method that is definitely used by mechanical designers to take measures to remove mechanical hazards during the design phase.
1) Adopting intrinsic security technology
Intrinsically safe technology refers to the design and manufacture of mechanical predetermined functions by using this technology. It can fulfill the safety requirements of the machine itself when performing established functions of the machine under predetermined conditions without using additional protection precautions. These include: staying away from sharpened sides, sharpened corners and bulges; making sure sufficient protection distances; identifying limits on physical quantities; using intrinsically secure procedures and power sources.
2) Limit mechanical stress
The mechanical stress of the mechanical parts does not exceed the permissible value and a enough safety factor is guaranteed.
3) Basic safety of materials and materials
Components, fuels, and components utilized to produce equipment have to not endanger the safety or health of staff during use. The mechanical properties of the material, such as tensile strength, shear power, influence strength, produce limit, etc., should meet the weight requirements for performing the designed function; the materials should become capable to endure the established environmental circumstances, such as corrosion level of resistance, ageing level of resistance, and resistance. The ability to use; the materials should have uniformity, prevent the metallographic framework of the material from getting uneven due to unreasonable procedure style, and create residual tension; at the same period, prevent using poisonous materials or chemicals, and should prevent the machinery itself or due to use. The risk of open fire and explosion from fumes, fluids, dust, vapors or other chemicals created by certain materials.
4) Fulfilling basic safety ergonomic principles
In the mechanical design, the basic safety man-machine engineering basic principle is fulfilled by rationally distributing human-machine functions, adapting to human body characteristics, man-machine interface design, work space design, etc., enhancing the operability and dependability of mechanical devices, and producing the operator’s physical power Usage and emotional stress are reduced, therefore reducing functional mistakes.
5) Basic safety concepts for designing control systems
During the use of machinery, the common harmful conditions are: unintentional start, out of control of rate alter, motion can not really end, shifting mechanised parts or workpieces fall off, the function of safety devices is definitely blocked. The design of the control system should take into accounts the operating settings of the several procedures or the usage of mistake display devices so that the owner can handle them securely.
6) Prevent the problems of pneumatic and hydraulic systems
Devices that use pneumatic, hydraulic, thermal, and other products have to end up being designed to avoid the potential hazards associated with animal release of these energies.